D2 dopamine receptor regulation of learning, sleep and plasticity

A.S.C. França, B. Lobão-Soares, L. Muratori, G. Nascimento, J. Winne, C.M. Pereira, S.M.B. Jeronimo and S. Ribeiro

Dopamine and sleep have been independently linked with hippocampus-dependent learning. Since D2 dopaminergic transmission is required for the occurrence of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, it is possible that dopamine affects learning by way of changes in post-acquisition REM sleep. To investigate this hypothesis, we first assessed whether D2 dopaminergic modulation in mice affects novel object preference, a hippocampus-dependent task. Animals trained in the dark period, when sleep is reduced, did not improve significantly in performance when tested 24 h after training. In contrast, animals trained in the sleep-rich light period showed significant learning after 24 h. When injected with the D2 inverse agonist haloperidol immediately after the exploration of novel objects, animals trained in the light period showed reduced novelty preference upon retesting 24 h later. Next we investigated whether haloperidol affected the protein levels of plasticity factors shown to be up-regulated in an experience-dependent manner during REM sleep. Haloperidol decreased post-exploration hippocampal protein levels at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h for phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, at 6 h for Zif-268; and at 12 h for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Electrophysiological and kinematic recordings showed a significant decrease in the amount of REM sleep following haloperidol injection, while slow-wave sleep remained unaltered. Importantly, REM sleep decrease across animals was strongly correlated with deficits in novelty preference (Rho=0.56, p=0.012). Altogether, the results suggest that the dopaminergic regulation of REM sleep affects learning by modulating post-training levels of calcium-dependent plasticity factors.

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