Publicações

Investigation of rat exploratory behavior via evolving artificial neural networks

Ariadne de Andrade Costa and Renato Tinós

Background: Neuroevolution comprises the use of evolutionary computation to define the architecture and/or to train artificial neural networks (ANNs). This strategy has been employed to investigate the behavior of rats in the elevated plus-maze, which is a widely used tool for studying anxiety in mice and rats. New method: Here we propose a neuroevolutionary model, in which both the weights and the architecture of artificial neural networks (our virtual rats) are evolved by a genetic algorithm. Comparison with Existing Methods: This model is an improvement of a previous model that involves the evolution of just the weights of the ANN by the genetic algorithm. In order to compare both models, we analyzed traditional measures of anxiety behavior, like the time spent and the number of entries in both open and closed arms of the maze. Results: When compared to real rat data, our findings suggest that the results from the model introduced here are statistically better than those from other models in the literature. Conclusions: In this way, the neuroevolution of architecture is clearly important for the development of the virtual rats. Moreover, this technique allowed the comprehension of the importance of different sensory units and different number of hidden neurons (performing as memory) in the ANNs (virtual rats).

Contrast response functions in the visual wulst of the alert burrowing owl: a single-unit study

Vieira P.G., de Sousa J.P. and Baron J.

The neuronal representation of luminance contrast has not been thoroughly studied in birds. Here we present a detailed quantitative analysis of the contrast response of 120 individual neurons recorded from the visual wulst of awake burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia). Stimuli were sine-wave gratings presented within the cell classical receptive field and optimized in terms of eye preference, direction of drift, and spatiotemporal frequency. As contrast intensity was increased from zero to near 100%, most cells exhibited a monotonic response profile with a compressive, at times saturating, nonlinearity at higher contrasts. However, contrast response functions were found to have a highly variable shape across cells. With the view to capture a systematic trend in the data, we assessed the performance of four plausible models (linear, power, logarithmic, and hyperbolic ratio) using classical goodness-of-fit measures and more rigorous statistical tools for multimodel inferences based on the Akaike information criterion. From this analysis, we conclude that a high degree of model uncertainty is present in our data, meaning that no single descriptor is able on its own to capture the heterogeneous nature of single-unit contrast responses in the wulst. We further show that the generalizability of the hyperbolic ratio model established, for example, in the primary visual cortex of cats and monkeys is not tenable in the owl wulst mainly because most neurons in this area have a much wider dynamic range that starts at low contrast. The challenge for future research will be to understand the functional implications of these findings.

Continuity properties of a factor of Markov chains

Walter A. F. de Carvalho, Sandro Gallo and Nancy L. Garcia

Starting from a Markov chain with a finite or a countable infinite alphabet, we consider the chain obtained when all but one symbol are indistinguishable for the practitioner. We study conditions on the transition matrix of the Markov chain ensuring that the image chain has continuous or discontinuous transition probabilities with respect to the past.

Stochastic Ising model with plastic interactions

Eugene Pechersky, Guillem Via and Anatoly Yambartsev

We propose a new model based on the Ising model with the aim to study synaptic plasticity phenomena in neural networks. It is today well established in biology that the synapses or connections between certain types of neurons are strengthened when the neurons are co-active, a form of the so called synaptic plasticity. Such mechanism is believed to mediate the formation and maintenance of memories. The proposed model describes some features from that phenomenon. Together with the spin-flip dynamics, in our model the coupling constants are also subject to stochastic dynamics, so that they interact with each other. The evolution of the system is described by a continuous-time Markov jump process.

Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in networks of stochastic spiking neurons

Ludmila Brochini, Ariadne de Andrade Costa, Miguel Abadi, Antônio C. Roque, Jorge Stolfi and Osame Kinouchi

Phase transitions and critical behavior are crucial issues both in theoretical and experimental neuroscience. We report analytic and computational results about phase transitions and self-organized criticality (SOC) in networks with general stochastic neurons. The stochastic neuron has a firing probability given by a smooth monotonic function Φ(V) of the membrane potential V, rather than a sharp firing threshold. We find that such networks can operate in several dynamic regimes (phases) depending on the average synaptic weight and the shape of the firing function Φ. In particular, we encounter both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to absorbing states. At the continuous transition critical boundary, neuronal avalanches occur whose distributions of size and duration are given by power laws, as observed in biological neural networks. We also propose and test a new mechanism to produce SOC: the use of dynamic neuronal gains – a form of short-term plasticity probably located at the axon initial segment (AIS) – instead of depressing synapses at the dendrites (as previously studied in the literature). The new self-organization mechanism produces a slightly supercritical state, that we called SOSC, in accord to some intuitions of Alan Turing.

Motor Coordination Correlates with Academic Achievement and Cognitive Function in Children

Valter R. Fernandes, Michelle L. Scipião Ribeiro, Thais Melo, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Thiago T. Guimarães, Narahyana B. Araújo, Sidarta Ribeiro and Andréa C. Deslandes

The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed—running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We found, that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R2 = 0.20). Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (AAT; Spearman's rho = 0.536; p ≤ 0.001), as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R = −0.438; p = 0.003) and cancelation (rho = −0.471; p = 0.001). All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition.

Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming

Natália B. Mota, Adara Resende, Sérgio A. Mota-Rolim, Mauro Copelli and Sidarta Ribeiro

Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream lucidity is likely to produce safe psychological strengthening in a non-psychotic population, but in a psychotic population LD practice may further empower deliria and hallucinations, giving internal reality the appearance of external reality.

Retrieving a context tree from EEG data

A. Duarte, R. Fraiman, A. Galves, G. Ost, C. Vargas

It has been repeatedly conjectured that the brain retrieves statistical regularities from stimuli, so that their structural features are separated from noise. Here we present a new statistical approach allowing to address this conjecture. This approach is based on a new class of stochastic processes driven by context tree models. Also, it associates to a new experimental protocol in which structured auditory sequences are presented to volunteers while electroencephalographic signals are recorded from their scalp. A statistical model selection procedure for functional data is presented to analyze the electrophysiological signals. This procedure is proved to be consistent. Applied to samples of electrophysiological trajectories collected during structured auditory stimuli presentation, it produces results supporting the conjecture that the brain effectively identifies the context tree characterizing the source.

Computational Tracking of Mental Health in Youth

Mota N., Copelli M., Ribeiro S.

The early onset of mental disorders can lead to serious cognitive damage, and timely interventions are needed in order to prevent them. In patients of low socioeconomic status, as is common in Latin America, it can be hard to identify children at risk. Here, we briefly introduce the problem by reviewing the scarce epidemiological data from Latin America regarding the onset of mental disorders, and discussing the difficulties associated with early diagnosis. Then we present computational psychiatry, a new field to which we and other Latin American researchers have contributed methods particularly relevant for the quantitative investigation of psychopathologies manifested during childhood. We focus on new technologies that help to identify mental disease and provide prodromal evaluation, so as to promote early differential diagnosis and intervention. To conclude, we discuss the application of these methods to clinical and educational practice. A comprehensive and quantitative characterization of verbal behavior in children, from hospitals and laboratories to homes and schools, may lead to more effective pedagogical and medical intervention.

Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of Marmoset Vocalizations

Hjalmar K. Turesson, Sidarta Ribeiro, Danillo R. Pereira, João P. Papa, Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque

Automatic classification of vocalization type could potentially become a useful tool for acoustic the monitoring of captive colonies of highly vocal primates. However, for classification to be useful in practice, a reliable algorithm that can be successfully trained on small datasets is necessary. In this work, we consider seven different classification algorithms with the goal of finding a robust classifier that can be successfully trained on small datasets. We found good classification performance (accuracy > 0.83 and F1-score > 0.84) using the Optimum Path Forest classifier. Dataset and algorithms are made publicly available.

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O Centro de Pesquisa, Inovação e Difusão em Neuromatemática está sediado na Universidade de São Paulo e é financiado pela FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo).

 

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