Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming

Natália B. Mota, Adara Resende, Sérgio A. Mota-Rolim, Mauro Copelli and Sidarta Ribeiro

Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream lucidity is likely to produce safe psychological strengthening in a non-psychotic population, but in a psychotic population LD practice may further empower deliria and hallucinations, giving internal reality the appearance of external reality.

Retrieving a context tree from EEG data

A. Duarte, R. Fraiman, A. Galves, G. Ost, C. Vargas

It has been repeatedly conjectured that the brain retrieves statistical regularities from stimuli, so that their structural features are separated from noise. Here we present a new statistical approach allowing to address this conjecture. This approach is based on a new class of stochastic processes driven by context tree models. Also, it associates to a new experimental protocol in which structured auditory sequences are presented to volunteers while electroencephalographic signals are recorded from their scalp. A statistical model selection procedure for functional data is presented to analyze the electrophysiological signals. This procedure is proved to be consistent. Applied to samples of electrophysiological trajectories collected during structured auditory stimuli presentation, it produces results supporting the conjecture that the brain effectively identifies the context tree characterizing the source.

Computational Tracking of Mental Health in Youth

Mota N., Copelli M., Ribeiro S.

The early onset of mental disorders can lead to serious cognitive damage, and timely interventions are needed in order to prevent them. In patients of low socioeconomic status, as is common in Latin America, it can be hard to identify children at risk. Here, we briefly introduce the problem by reviewing the scarce epidemiological data from Latin America regarding the onset of mental disorders, and discussing the difficulties associated with early diagnosis. Then we present computational psychiatry, a new field to which we and other Latin American researchers have contributed methods particularly relevant for the quantitative investigation of psychopathologies manifested during childhood. We focus on new technologies that help to identify mental disease and provide prodromal evaluation, so as to promote early differential diagnosis and intervention. To conclude, we discuss the application of these methods to clinical and educational practice. A comprehensive and quantitative characterization of verbal behavior in children, from hospitals and laboratories to homes and schools, may lead to more effective pedagogical and medical intervention.

Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of Marmoset Vocalizations

Hjalmar K. Turesson, Sidarta Ribeiro, Danillo R. Pereira, João P. Papa, Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque

Automatic classification of vocalization type could potentially become a useful tool for acoustic the monitoring of captive colonies of highly vocal primates. However, for classification to be useful in practice, a reliable algorithm that can be successfully trained on small datasets is necessary. In this work, we consider seven different classification algorithms with the goal of finding a robust classifier that can be successfully trained on small datasets. We found good classification performance (accuracy > 0.83 and F1-score > 0.84) using the Optimum Path Forest classifier. Dataset and algorithms are made publicly available.

Attractive regular stochastic chains: perfect simulation and phase transition

Sandro Gallo and Daniel Y. Takahashi

We prove that uniqueness of the stationary chain, or equivalently, of the g-measure, compatible with an attractive regular probability kernel is equivalent to either one of the following two assertions for this chain: (1) it is a finitary coding of an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) process with countable alphabet; (2) the concentration of measure holds at exponential rate. We show in particular that if a stationary chain is uniquely defined by a kernel that is continuous and attractive, then this chain can be sampled using a coupling-from-the-past algorithm. For the original Bramson–Kalikow model we further prove that there exists a unique compatible chain if and only if the chain is a finitary coding of a finite alphabet i.i.d. process. Finally, we obtain some partial results on conditions for phase transition for general chains of infinite order.

An improved upper bound on the density of universal random graphs

Domingos Dellamonica Jr., Yoshiharu Kohayakawa, Vojtěch Rödl and Andrzej Ruciński

We give a polynomial time randomized algorithm that, on receiving as input a pair (H,G) of n-vertex graphs, searches for an embedding of H into G. If H has bounded maximum degree and G is suitably dense and pseudorandom, then the algorithm succeeds with high probability. Our algorithm proves that, for every integer d ≥ 3 and a large enough constant C = Cd, as n →∞, asymptotically almost all graphs with n vertices and at least Cn2−1/d log1/d n edges contain as subgraphs all graphs with n vertices and maximum degree at most d.

Observing Grasping Actions Directed to Emotion-Laden Objects: Effects upon Corticospinal Excitability

Anaelli A. Nogueira-Campos, Ghislain Saunier, Valeria Della-Maggiore, Laura A. S. de Oliveira, Erika C. Rodrigues and Claudia D. Vargas

The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE). Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1) maximum grip aperture, and (2) object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system.

Tight Hamilton cycles in random hypergraphs

Peter Allen, Julia Böttcher, Yoshiharu Kohayakawa, Yury Person

We give an algorithmic proof for the existence of tight Hamilton cycles in a random r-uniform hypergraph with edge probability p=n^{-1+eps} for every eps>0. This partly answers a question of Dudek and Frieze [Random Structures Algorithms], who used a second moment method to show that tight Hamilton cycles exist even for p=omega(n)/n (r>2) where omega(n) tends to infinity arbitrary slowly, and for p=(e+o(1))/n (r>3). The method we develop for proving our result applies to related problems as well.

Increase in hippocampal theta oscillations during spatial decision making

Hindiael Belchior, Vítor Lopes dos Santos, Adriano B. L. Tort, Sidarta Ribeiro

The processing of spatial and mnemonic information is believed to depend on hippocampal theta oscillations (5–12 Hz). However, in rats both the power and the frequency of the theta rhythm are modulated by locomotor activity, which is a major confounding factor when estimating its cognitive correlates. Previous studies have suggested that hippocampal theta oscillations support decision-making processes. In this study, we investigated to what extent spatial decision making modulates hippocampal theta oscillations when controlling for variations in locomotion speed. We recorded local field potentials from the CA1 region of rats while animals had to choose one arm to enter for reward (goal) in a four-arm radial maze. We observed prominent theta oscillations during the decision-making period of the task, which occurred in the center of the maze before animals deliberately ran through an arm toward goal location. In speed-controlled analyses, theta power and frequency were higher during the decision period when compared to either an intertrial delay period (also at the maze center), or to the period of running toward goal location. In addition, theta activity was higher during decision periods preceding correct choices than during decision periods preceding incorrect choices. Altogether, our data support a cognitive function for the hippocampal theta rhythm in spatial decision making.

Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

G. Antunes, A. C. Roque & F. M. Simoes-de-Souza

Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca2+ induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca2+ signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca2+ thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses.




The Research, Innovation and Dissemination Center for Neuromathematics is hosted by the University of São Paulo and funded by FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation).


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