Antonio Galves, Eva Löcherbach, Christophe Pouzat, Errico Presutti
In this paper we present a simple microscopic stochastic model describing short term plasticity within a large homogeneous network of interacting neurons. Each neuron is represented by its membrane potential and by the residual calcium concentration within the cell at a given time. Neurons spike at a rate depending on their membrane potential. When spiking, the residual calcium concentration of the spiking neuron increases by one unit. Moreover, an additional amount of potential is given to all other neurons in the system. This amount depends linearly on the current residual calcium concentration within the cell of the spiking neuron. In between successive spikes, the potentials and the residual calcium concentrations of each neuron decrease at a constant rate.
In 2018, Ferrari et al. wrote a paper called “Phase Transition for Infinite Systems of Spiking Neurons” in which they introduced a continuous time stochastic model of interacting neurons. This model consists in a countable number of neurons, each of them having an integer-valued membrane potential, which value determine the rate at which the neuron spikes. This model has also a parameter 𝛾, corresponding to the rate of the leak times of the neurons, that is, the times at which the membrane potential of a given neuron is spontaneously reset to its resting value (which is 0 by convention). As its title says, it was proven in this previous article that this model presents a phase transition phenomenon with respect to 𝛾. Here we prove that this model also exhibits a metastable behavior. By this we mean that if 𝛾 is small enough, then the re-normalized time of extinction of a finite version of this system converges toward an exponential random variable of mean 1 as the number of neurons goes to infinity.
Vinícius Lima Cordeiro, Rodrigo Felipe de Oliveira Pena, Cesar Augusto Celis Ceballos, Renan Oliveira Shimoura and Antonio Carlos Roque
Neurons respond to external stimuli by emitting sequences of action potentials (spike trains). In this way, one can say that the spike train is the neuronal response to an input stimulus. Action potentials are “all-or-none” phenomena, which means that a spike train can be represented by a sequence of zeros and ones. In the context of information theory, one can then ask: how much information about a given stimulus the spike train conveys? Or rather, what aspects of the stimulus are encoded by the neuronal response? In this article, an introduction to information theory is presented which consists of historical aspects, fundamental concepts of the theory, and applications to neuroscience. The connection to neuroscience is made with the use of demonstrations and discussions of different methods of the theory of information. Examples are given through computer simulations of two neuron models, the Poisson neuron and the integrate-and-fire neuron, and a cellular automata network model. In the latter case, it is shown how one can use information theory measures to retrieve the connectivity matrix of a network.
R. F. O. Pena, V. Lima, R. O. Shimoura, C. C. Ceballos, H. G. Rotstein and A. C. Roque
The conventional impedance profile of a neuron can identify the presence of resonance and other properties of the neuronal response to oscillatory inputs, such as nonlinear response amplifications, but it cannot distinguish other nonlinear properties such as asymmetries in the shape of the voltage response envelope. Experimental observations have shown that the response of neurons to oscillatory inputs preferentially enhances either the upper or lower part of the voltage envelope in different frequency bands. These asymmetric voltage responses arise in a neuron model when it is submitted to high enough amplitude oscillatory currents of variable frequencies. We show how the nonlinearities associated to different ionic currents or present in the model as captured by its voltage equation lead to asymmetrical response and how high amplitude oscillatory currents emphasize this response. We propose a geometrical explanation for the phenomenon where asymmetries result not only from nonlinearities in their activation curves but also from nonlinearites captured by the nullclines in the phase-plane diagram and from the system’s time-scale separation. In addition, we identify an unexpected frequency-dependent pattern which develops in the gating variables of these currents and is a product of strong nonlinearities in the system as we show by controlling such behavior by manipulating the activation curve parameters. The results reported in this paper shed light on the ionic mechanisms by which brain embedded neurons process oscillatory information.
Renan Hiroshi Matsuda, Gabriela Pazin Tardelli, Carlos Otávio Guimarães, Victor Hugo Souza and Oswaldo Baffa Filho
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive method of the human cortex stimulation. Known as TMS, the technique was introduced by Barker et al. in 1985. Its operation is based on the Faraday’s Law, in which an intense magnetic feld that varies rapidly is able to induce an electric feld in the surface of the brain, depolarizing the neurons in the cerebral cortex. Due to its versatility, TMS is currently used for both research and clinical applications. Among the clinical applications, TMS is used as a diagnostic tool and also as a therapeutic technique for some neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders such as depression, Parkinson’s disease and tinnitus. As for the diagnostic tool, motor mapping is a technique to delineate the area of representation of the target muscle in its cortical surface, whose applicability may be in studies of the cerebral physiology to evaluate damage to the motor cortex and corticospinal tract. This review aims to introduce the physics, the basic elements, the biological principles and the main applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation.
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